Sports today have become very popular and competitive among people of all ages, even young children. A number of athletes want to learn how to bring their game to the next level. Sometimes this means breaking ineffective techniques as well as beginning new and unfamiliar habits. Sticking to something new can be difficult, especially when results may not be see immediately. But, if the athlete understands and truly believes in the benefits, then adherence by be stronger. As a coach, part of your role is to facilitate any knowledge of ways to enhance an athlete's performance, whether it may be optimizing physical or mental capabilities or preventing injuries. With this in mind, a major factor that can contribute to an athlete's success is to understand all of the values of proper stretching.
An athlete can benefit in many ways from stretching. The most common reason taught to athletes is that stretching increases flexibility, the ability to move joints through a full range of motion, thereby reducing the risk of injury. Unfortunately, the majority of athletes believe that they are invincible and that an injury will not happen to them. This attitude is reinforced when these athletes do not get injured. What many athletes and coaches do not understand is that by increasing flexibility, one's personal sprint speed, power, and strength can be optimized. For example, if a soccer player is able to move his/her leg further back during the preparatory phase of a shot, more power can be created.
Another example, more useful to a broad range of sports, is increasing speed. Although an individual's sprint speed can only be altered a little bit (due to genetic constraints), one way to help optimize personal speed is to increase range of motion. It is also important to realize that a stretched muscle will encounter less resistance from contraction and tension, thereby causing less energy needed to complete a movement. When athletes learn and understands these benefits, they are usually more apt to institute a stretching program.
Not only is teaching the benefits of stretching important, but also knowing the best time to stretch is key. A number of people believe that stretching before practice is all that is necessary for an athlete.
First of all, the muscles should be warm before stretching occurs. A coach should have the athletes break a sweat, usually doing a sport specific activity, and then do the stretching. To save some practice time, coaches might announce what will happen during the practice that day and/or review previous practices or competitions. One key mistake often made is over-stretching before practice. You want your athletes to have good range of motion for practice, but this is not the time to try to gain flexibility.
The best time for that is after practice or own their own. Doing a cool down jog and stretch after training allows athletes to stretch again when are warm and helps reduce next day muscle soreness. It also gives the team time together and provides some relaxation prior to leaving practice. Individuals who need additional stretching to further increase flexibility can be advised to do stretching at home. It does not have to take up too much time because it can be done while doings other things, like watching TV. You should remind the athletes that they still must utilize proper stretching techniques, even at home. Even though children do not place as much demand on their body as older athletes, learning the value and the habit of stretching at an early age may aid in their success later on in their career.
Article contributed by Coaching Youth Sports, an online newsletter presenting information about learning and performing sport skills.
|Courtesy of the National Athletic Trainers Alliance
R = Rest
Resting an injured area is necessary to allow the body time to get the effects of the trauma under control and avoid additional stress and damage to the injured tissue. The period of rest required will vary depending on the severity of the injury (e.g. days to weeks). People who do not rest an acute (sudden or traumatic) injury can prolong the inflammation period and increase the healing time required, thereby delaying the recovery.
I = Ice
Ice applied promptly to an injury can slow down or minimize some of the inflammation. The cold causes a closing of the arterioles in the tissue, which reduces the bleeding. The local tissue metabolism slows down reducing its need for oxygen and nutrients, and the nerve impulses are slowed considerably to reduce the pain that's felt, providing a numbing effect.
Examples of ice treatment include using an ice bag or ice bucket for 15-20 minutes or ice massage for 7-10. Heat should only be applied after you are sure that the bleeding and swelling has stopped completely; otherwise, an individual's recovery time will be delayed.
C = Compression
Compression is an application of an Ace Bandage or similar item around the injured area. Its purpose is to help control swelling and to provide mild support.
Any wrap should be applied carefully. Too tight a bandage could constrict or interrupt vital circulation to the area.
E = Elevation
Elevation involves raising the injured area above the level of the heart as much as possible. This position promotes the lessening or elimination of swelling through the use of gravity and lymph drainage system.
To prevent injuries, athletes should:
- Be in proper physical condition.
- Warm up and stretch before participating in any sports or exercise.
- Always wear properly fitting shoes, and replace athletic shoes as soon as the tread wears out or the heel wears down on one side.
- Nourish their muscles by eating a well-balanced diet.
- Use or wear appropriate protective equipment.
- Maintain hydration.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Avoid exercising or playing sports when tired or in pain.
- Walk and work on even surfaces.